This course examines the contribution of the judiciary to political governance in comparative perspective. It focuses on the Supreme Court and the European Court of Justice, which is the highest court of the European Union. It also takes into account selectively judgments of other constitutional courts. It seeks to explore the function of judicial review in modern democracy through a study of judicial decisions in selected areas. It examines the relationship between the judiciary and the other organs of government and the role of courts in protecting the citizen. It focuses on the following areas: federalism, the protection of human rights, the principles of democracy, non-discrimination, equality, proportionality, legitimate expectations, and fair hearing; Locus standi, remedies for the protection of constitutional rights, and the liability of public bodies and state agencies. This course satisfies the upper-level writing seminar requirement.