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William A. Calo

William A. Calo

Assistant Professor of Public Health Sciences and Affiliate Law Faculty

Curriculum Vitae

(717) 531-3535

Ph.D., University of Texas, Houston
J.D., University of Puerto Rico Law School
M.P.H., University of Puerto Rico
B.S., University of Puerto Rico

William Calo, PhD, JD, is an Assistant Professor of Public Health Sciences at the Penn State College of Medicine, and Implementation Research Director of Penn State Project ECHO. His research program examines how to adapt, implement and evaluate evidence-based interventions to improve chronic disease prevention among diverse and disadvantaged populations. Dr. Calo is currently focused on the impact of interpersonal, systems and policy strategies on HPV vaccine uptake in rural communities and among vaccine-hesitant parents. More specifically, at the policy level, his work has contributed to a better understanding of the impact of school-entry requirements and state laws granting pharmacists authority to administer adolescent vaccines on HPV vaccination.

Dr. William Calo has taught health services research and health policy courses in the Department of Public Health Sciences. He developed a new graduate course, PHS 534 Public Health Law Research and Practice, to give law and public health students a foundation on how to empirically evaluate laws and policies to advance population health with a focus on cancer prevention and control.

Mama SK, Bhuiyan N, Foo W, Segel JE, Bluethmann SM, Winkels RM, Wiskemann J, Calo WA, Lengerich EJ, Schmitz KH. Rural-Urban Differences in Meeting Physical Activity Recommendations and Health Status in Cancer Survivors in Central Pennsylvania. Support Care Cancer. Forthcoming. doi: 10.1007/s00520-020-05342-y

Ortiz AP, Mendez-Lazaro P, Calo WA, Garcia-Camacho S, Mercado-Casillas AM, Cabrera-Marquez JJ, Tortolero-Luna G. Strengthening resilience and adaptive capacity to disasters in cancer control plans: Lessons learned from Puerto Rico. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. Forthcoming.

Calo WA, Brewer NT. HPV vaccine requirements, opt-outs and providers’ support: Key studies missing from a recent systematic review. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2020; 16(1):128-30. doi: 10.1080/21645515.2019.1646580.

Calo WA, Shah PD, Gilkey MB, Vanderpool R, Barden S, Doucette W, Brewer NT. Implementing pharmacy-located HPV vaccination: Findings from pilot projects in five states. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2019; 15(7-8):1831-8. PMCID: PMC6746514. doi: 10.1080/21645515.2019.1602433.

Spencer J, Calo WA, Brewer NT. Racial disparities and reverse disparities in HPV vaccination: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Prev Med. 2019; 123:197-203. PMCID: PMC6724708. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2019.03.037.

Margolis MA, Brewer NT, Shah PD, Calo WA, Gilkey MB. Stories about HPV vaccine in social media, traditional media, and conversations. Prev Med. 2019; 118:251-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2018.11.005.

Calo WA, Gilkey MB, Malo T, Robichaud M, Brewer NT. A content analysis of HPV vaccination messages available online. Vaccine. 2018;36(49):7525-9. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.10.053.

Shah PD, Calo WA, Gilkey MB, Boynton MH, Alton Daily S, Todd KG, Margolis MA, Brewer NT. Questions and concerns about HPV vaccine: A communication experiment. Pediatrics. 2018;143(2): e20181872. PMCID: PMC6361359. doi: 10.1542/peds.2018-1872.

Shah PD, Calo WA, Marciniak M, Gilkey MB, Brewer NT. Support for pharmacist-provided HPV vaccination: National surveys of US physicians and parents. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2018;27(8):970-8. PMCID: PMC6092750. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-18-0380.

Calo WA, Gilkey MB, Leeman J, MacKinnon J, Averette C, Sanchez S, Kornides M, Brewer NT. Coaching primary care clinics for HPV vaccination quality improvement: Comparing in-person and webinar implementation. Transl Behav Med. 2019; 9(1)23-31. PMCID: PMC6305561. doi: 10.1093/tbm/iby008.

Fernandez ME, Walker TJ, Weiner BJ, Calo WA, Liang S, Risendal B, Friedman DB, Tu SP, Williams RS, Jacobs S, Hermann AK, Kegler MC. Developing measures to assess constructs from the Inner Setting domain of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. Implement Sci. 2018; 13:52. PMCID: PMC5870186. doi: 10.1186/s13012-018-0736-7.

Shah PD, Calo WA, Marciniak M, Golin C, Sleath B, Brewer NT. Service quality and parents’ willingness to get adolescents HPV vaccine from pharmacists. Prev Med. 2018; 109:106-12. PMCID: PMC5843559. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2018.01.002.

Kornides ML, Calo WA, Heisler-MacKinnon JA, Gilkey MB. U.S. primary care clinics' experiences during introduction of the 9-valent HPV vaccine. J Community Health. 2018;43(2):291-6. PMCID: PMC5832505. doi: 10.1007/s10900-017-0420-x.

Calo WA, Gilkey MB, Shah P, Marciniak MW, Brewer NT. Parents’ willingness to get HPV vaccination for their adolescent children at a pharmacy. Prev Med. 2017; 99:251-6. PMCID: PMC5545978. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2017.02.003

Gilkey MB, Calo WA, Marciniak MW, Brewer NT. Parents who refuse or delay HPV vaccine: Differences in vaccination behavior, beliefs, and clinical communication preferences. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2017; 13(3):680-686. PMCID: PMC5360115. doi: 10.1080/21645515.2016.1247134

McCarthy S, Walmer K, Boggan J, Gichane MW, Calo WA, Beauvais HA, Brewer NT. Awareness of cervical cancer causes and pre-determinants of likelihood to screen among women in Haiti. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2017; 21:37-41. PMCID: PMC5545975. doi: 10.1097/LGT.0000000000000281

Gichane MW, Calo WA, McCarthy S, Walmer D, Boggan J, Brewer NT. Human papillomavirus awareness in Haiti: Preparing for a national HPV vaccination program. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2017; 30(1):96-101. PMCID: PMC5545972. doi: 10.1016/j.jpag.2016.07.003

Colón-López V, Fernández-Espada N, Vélez C, Gonzalez VJ, Diaz-Toro EC, Calo WA, Savas LS, Pattatucci A, Fernández ME. Communication about sex and HPV among Puerto Rican mothers and daughters. Ethn Health. 2017; 22(4):348-60. PMCID: PMC5557394. doi: 10.1080/13557858.2016.1246938

Colón-López V, González D, Vélez C, Fernández-Espada N, Feldman-Soler A, Ayala-Escobar K, Ayala- Marín AM, Soto-Salgado M, Calo WA, Pattatucci-Aragón A, Rivera-Díaz M, Fernández ME. Community-Academic Partnership to Implement a Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Education Program in Puerto Rico. P R Health Sci J. 2017;36(4):191-197.

Correa-Fernández V, Díaz-Toro EC, Reitzel LR, Guo L, Chen M, Li Y, Calo WA, Shih YCT, Wetter DW. Combined treatment for at-risk drinking and smoking cessation among Puerto Ricans: A randomized clinical trial. Addict Behav. 2017; 65:185-92. PMCID: PMC5358923. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.10.009

Calo WA, Gilkey MB, Shah PD, Moss JL, Brewer NT. Parents’ support for school-entry requirements for HPV vaccination: A national study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2016; 25(9):1317-25. PMCID: PMC5010506. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-15-1159

Trogdon J, Shafer P, Shah PD, Calo WA. Are state laws granting pharmacists authority to vaccinate associated with HPV vaccination rates among adolescents? Vaccine. 2016; 34(38): 4514-9. PMCID: PMC4996696. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.07.056

Califano S+, Calo WA+, Weinberger M, Gilkey MB, Brewer NT. [+ shared first authorship] Physician support of HPV vaccination school-entry requirements. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2016; 12(6):1626-32. PMCID: PMC4964636. doi: 10.1080/21645515.2016.1149275

Gilkey MB, Calo WA, Moss JL, Shah PD, Marciniak MW, Brewer NT. Provider communication and HPV vaccination: The impact of recommendation quality. Vaccine. 2016; 34(9):1187-92. PMCID: PMC4944755. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.01.023

Calo WA, Vernon SW, Lairson D, Linder S. Area-level socioeconomic inequalities in the use of mammography screening: A multilevel analysis of the Health of Houston Survey. Womens Health Issues. 2016; 26(2):201-7. PMCID: PMC4761271. doi: 10.1016/j.whi.2015.11.002

Calo WA, Brewer NT. Trends in Genital Warts in the Era of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination. Sex Transm Dis. 2015; 42(12):669-70. PMCID: PMC4648687. doi: 10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000381

Brewer NT, Calo WA. HPV transmission in adolescent men who have sex with men. Lancet Infect Dis. 2015; 15(1):8-9. PMCID: PMC4347870. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(14)71019-9

Calo WA, Fernández ME, Fernández-Espada N, Colón-López V. Exploring the role of ethnic identity on the attitudes towards HPV vaccine advertising among Puerto Ricans: A qualitative analysis. J Immigr Minor Health. 2015; 17(1): 314-7. PMCID: PMC3961571. doi: 10.1007/s10903-013-9909-2

Calo WA, Braswell LC, Breen J, Hall M, Flores-Rojas KL, Mooneyham R, Schaal J, Hardy C, Dave G, Pérez-Jolles M, Garcia N, Reuland DS. Experiences of Latinos with limited English proficiency with clinic front office staff: An exploratory study to inform community-based translational research in North Carolina. BMC Health Serv Res. 2015; 15(1):570. PMCID: PMC4690234. doi: 10.1186/s12913-015- 1235-z

Cole AM, Tu SP, Fernandez M, Calo WA, Hotz J, Wolver S. Reported use of electronic health records to implement evidence-based approaches to colorectal cancer screening in Community Health Centers. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2015;26(4):1235-45. doi: 10.1353/hpu.2015.0120

Calo WA, Vernon SW, Lairson D, Linder S. Associations between contextual factors and colorectal cancer screening in a racially and ethnically diverse population in Texas. Cancer Epidemiol. 2015; 39(6):798-804. PMCID: PMC4680846. doi: 10.1016/j.canep.2015.09.012

Calo WA, Suarez E, Soto-Salgado M, Quintana RA, Ortiz AP. Assessing lung cancer disparities between Puerto Ricans and other racial/ethnic groups in the United States, 1992-2010. J Immigr Minor Health. 2015;17(3):971-5. PMCID: PMC4449802. doi: 10.1007/s10903-014-0153-1

Fernández ME, Le YC, Fernandez-Espada N, Calo WA, Savas LS, Vélez C, Pattatucci A, Colón-López V. Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among Puerto Rican mothers and daughters, 2010: A qualitative study. Prev Chronic Dis. 2014; 11:E212. PMCID: PMC4264466. doi: 10.5888/pcd11.140171

Calo WA, Ortiz AP, Colón-López V, Krasny S, Tortolero-Luna G. Factors associated with perceived patient-provider communication quality among Puerto Ricans. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2014; 25(2):491-502. PMCID: PMC4154245. doi: 10.1353/hpu.2014.0074

Díaz-Toro EC, Fernandez ME, Correa-Fernández V, Calo WA, Ortíz AP, Mejía L, Mazas C, Santos- Ortiz MC, Wetter DW. Promoting tobacco cessation and smoke-free workplaces through community outreach partnerships in Puerto Rico. Prog Community Health Partnersh. 2014; 8(2):157-68. PMCID: PMC4237274. doi: 10.1353/cpr.2014.0032

Calo WA, Krasny S. Environmental determinants of smoking behaviors: The role of policy and environmental interventions in preventing smoking initiation and supporting cessation. Curr Cardiovasc Risk Rep. 2013; 7(6):446–52. PMCID: PMC3947572. doi: 10.1007/s12170-013-0344-7

Calo WA, Ortiz AP, Suárez E, Guzmán M, Pérez CM, Pérez CM. Association of cigarette smoking and metabolic syndrome in a Puerto Rican adult population. J Immigr Minor Health. 2013; 15(4):810-6. PMCID: PMC3502663. doi: 10.1007/s10903-012-9660-0

Colón-López V, Banerjee G, Gertz AM, Ortiz AP, Calo W, Finney-Rutten LJ, Colón-Ramos U, Hesse BW, Tortolero G. Behavioral correlates of fruit and vegetable intake in Puerto Rico: results from the Health Information National Trends Survey. P R Health Sci J. 2013;32(4):194-9.

Suárez E, González L, Díaz-Toro EC, Calo WA, Bermúdez F, Ortiz AP. Incidence of oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers by anatomical sites in population-based registries in Puerto Rico and the United States of America. P R Health Sci J. 2013;32(4):175-81.

Popham K, Calo WA+, Carpentier MY+, Chen NE+, Kamrudin SA+, Le Y-CL+, Skala KA+, Thornton LR+, Mullen PD [+ equal contribution]. A framework and sequential approach for optimal use of reporting guidelines in preventive medicine and public health. Am J Prev Med. 2012;43(4):e31-e42. PMCID: PMC3475417. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2012.06.031

Calo WA, Fernandez ME, Rivera M, Diaz E, Correa-Fernandez V, Pattatucci A, Wetter DW. Assessing awareness and use of evidence-based programs for cancer control in Puerto Rico. J Cancer Educ. 2012; 27(3):486-93. PMCID: PMC3422596. doi: 10.1007/s13187-012-0348-x

Ortiz AP, Soto-Salgado M, Calo W, Nogueras G, Tortolero-Luna G, Hebl S, Figueroa-Vallés N, Suárez E. Disparities in breast cancer in Puerto Rico and among Hispanics, non-Hispanic Whites and non- Hispanic Blacks in the United States. Breast J. 2010;16(6):666-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1524-4741.2010.00990

Ortiz AP, Soto-Salgado M, Calo WA, Tortolero-Luna G, Pérez CM, Romero CJ, Pérez J, Figueroa- Vallés N, Suárez E. Incidence and mortality rates of selected infection-related cancers in Puerto Rico and in the United States. Infect Agent Cancer. 2010,5:10. PMCID: PMC2891681. doi:10.1186/1750-9378-5- 10

Torres-Cintrón M, Ortiz AP, Pérez-Irizarry J, Soto-Salgado M, Figueroa-Vallés NR, De La Torre- Feliciano T, Ortiz-Ortiz KJ, Calo WA, Suárez-Pérez E. Incidence and mortality of the leading cancer types in Puerto Rico: 1987-2004. P R Health Sci J. 2010; 29(3):317-29.

Ortiz-Ortiz KJ, Pérez-Irizarry J, Marín-Centeno H, Ortiz AP, Torres-Berrios N, Torres-Cintrón M, de la Torre-Feliciano T, Laborde-Rivera J, Calo WA, Figueroa-Vallés NR. Productivity loss in Puerto Rico's labor market due to cancer mortality. P R Health Sci J. 2010;29(3):241-9.

Calo WA, Suárez-Balseiro C, Suárez E, Soto-Salgado M, Santiago-Rodríguez EJ, Ortiz AP. Assessing the scientific research productivity of Puerto Rican cancer researchers: Bibliometric analysis from the Science Citation Index. P R Health Sci J. 2010;29(3):250-5.

Ortiz AP, Calo WA, Suárez-Balseiro C, Maura-Sardo M, Suárez E. Bibliometric assessment of cancer research in Puerto Rico, 1903-2005. Pan Am J Public Health. 2009;25(4):353-61.

Soto-Salgado M, Suárez E, Calo W, Cruz-Correa M, Figueroa-Vallés NR, Ortiz AP. Incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer in Puerto Rico and among Hispanics, non-Hispanic Whites, and non- Hispanic Blacks in the United States, 1998-2002. Cancer. 2009, 115(3):3016-23. PMCID: PMC4136810. doi: 10.1002/cncr.24340

Suárez E, Calo WA, Hernández EY, Diaz EC, Figueroa NR, Ortiz AP. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates of oral and pharyngeal cancer in Puerto Rico and among Hispanics, non-Hispanic Whites, and non-Hispanic Blacks in the USA. BMC Cancer. 2009, 9(1):129. PMCID: PMC2684121.

Calo WA, Quintana R, Catoni IE, Valle Y, Alvarez JJ, Colón WM, et al. Clinical conditions associated with environmental exposures: An epidemiologic study in two communities in Juana Diaz, Puerto Rico. PR Health Sci J. 2009; 28(2):126-34. PMCID: PMC3885176.

Ortíz AP, Díaz-Toro EC, Calo WA, Correa-Fernández V, Cases A, Santos-Ortiz MC, Mazas C, Mejía L, Wetter DW. Characteristics of smokers assessing the Puerto Rico Quitline. PR Health Sci J. 2008;27(3):213-9. PMCID: PMC2763363.